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  HEYNE'S GARDEN CENTRE (BEULAH PARK)

283-289 The Parade
Beulah Park
South Australia

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 fact sheets - Fungus Diseases
BLACK SPOT

This disease can attack leaves, stems and fruit of plants.
Do not put infected plants, branches, leaves, flowers or fruit in the compost. Sanitation measures are important for controlling black spot. Begin with a thorough clean-up when there is an outbreak during the year by raking up all the diseased leaves on the ground and destroy every bit.
These precautions during the Autumn will help to reduce fungi. All diseased canes should be pruned and disposed of, to help prevent a major outbreak recurring.


IDENTIFICATION
Black spot is caused by a fungus. It starts with circular, feathery black spots which first develop on the upper surface of leaves. These spots are frequently surrounded by a yellow halo. All infected leaves will turn yellow and fall prematurely. Purple-red lesions may also develop on first-year canes.

CONTROL
If a preventative fungicide program is used, it should start before leaves become spotted. From then until Autumn, the leaves may require additional protective sprays.
Spray with COPPER OXYCHLORIDE or Mancozeb as directed on container.

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GRAPE BLACK SPOT
Elsinoe ampelina
A fungal disease that occurs in the spring if conditions are damp and low temperatures continue.

Sultana grapes are more prone than other grapes.

IDENTIFICATION
Brownish-black spots first appear on the young canes and increase in size along the canes, not around them. The fungus then develops a sunken centre with a raised margin. As the black spot moves onto the flowers and young fruit they will wither and fall. The spots on the leaves will begin to turn grey with a reddish-brown edge and turn black as the fungus ages. Eventually the spots fall out and give the leaves a shot-hole effect. Any fruit that may be left on the vine will develop areas of blotches with a grey centre.

CONTROL
Remove vine canes or shoots that have small amounts of black spot on them. Vines that are heavy infected should be sprayed with COPPER OXYCHLORIDE or Mancozeb at bud burst and 10-14 days later. A follow up application 14 days later may be needed if the weather is cool and damp.

NOTE. READ ALL DIRECTIONS ON CONTAINER BEFORE USING.

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ROSE BLACK SPOT
Marssoniana rosaeROSE BLACK SPOT
This fungus produces black spots on the leaves. Black spot is worse during warm, humid weather. Early control of this disease will help prevent extensive damage to the plants foliage and avert spreading to nearby bushes. During warm, sultry conditions check your rose bushes daily for any signs of black spot.

IDENTIFICATION
Without treating this disease the spots may end up about 12 mm across, resembling a circle with fringed edges. The leaves turn yellow and fall to the ground. When the new leaves are produced they can also be infected. Poor growth of the rose bush will result in few, small growing flowers. Continuous defoliation of the rose bush will weaken the plant and then die back, followed by death will result.

CONTROL
When you first notice some of the leaves have black spot, pick off the leaves and pick up any diseased fallen leaves on the ground and place in the rubbish bin.
Do not water plants late in afternoon, especially if the weather is warm or hot. Roses are more susceptible to fungi when they grown in a shady position.

When the weather is warming up and there is humidity about it is time to keep a watchful eye on the rose garden.
When black spot is uncontrollable then start a spray program on a regular basis with Mancozeb.

NOTE. READ ALL DIRECTIONS ON CONTAINER BEFORE USING.

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STRAWBERRY BLACK SPOT
Colletotrichum aculatum
This fungus infects the leaves and green fruit but will remain dormant until the leaves age and the fruit ripens.

IDENTIFICATION
You will notice circular black spots about 3 mm in diameter appear on the ripe or nearly ripe fruit which will grow to about 20 mm and then become sunken. When the weather becomes humid, white fungal and pink spores can be seen on the infected area.

CONTROL
When the plants are splashed with water the fungus is spread to other plants in the same area. Black spot can also spread from plant to plant when picking the fruit.
If there is a small outbreak remove leaves and fruit and dispose of carefully to prevent a major outbreak. Strawberry black spot can also develop during storage.
Start a spraying program with Mancozeb on areas that are infected and repeat until fungus has been controlled.
To help prevent a repeat of the problem, water plants early in the day to allow the foliage to dry out before nightfall.

NOTE. READ ALL DIRECTIONS ON CONTAINER BEFORE USING.

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DOWNY MILDEW

Comprising of a number of different types of fungi which cause similar symptoms on different plants. Given the right conditions, warm humid weather, downy mildew spores will blow from plant to plant, spreading rapidly by wind, rain or irrigation.
Do not put infected plants, branches, leaves, flowers or fruit in the compost.


IDENTIFICATION
Downy Mildew first appear on the upper surfaces of the leaves as patches or spots. On the underside of the leaves directly below each spot a downy or furry growth is produced. This fungus is made up of numerous branched stalks with spores on the end. In most cases the colour could be slightly violet. During dry weather the fungi will stop growing or die. Downy mildew needs warm weather and a film of water on the leaves for spores to germinate.
Downy Mildew will attack vegetables, ornamentals and fruit plants.

CONTROL
Remove all infected parts and dispose of carefully. Spray infected plants with COPPER OXYCHLORIDE, Fongarid or Zineb.

NOTE. READ ALL DIRECTIONS ON CONTAINER BEFORE USING.

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GRAPE DOWNY MILDEW
Plasmopara viticola
A fungal disease that thrives on warm humid conditions from mid to late spring. Grapes are susceptible until the fruit changes colour, when they begin ripening.

IDENTIFICATION
The first sign of fungus on the leaves is a form of oily-looking spots which turn pale yellow and dry out. When the humidity is high, a white, furry growth begins to appear on the underside of the leaf under each spot. The leaves then change to patterns of different shades of brown and fall early in the season leaving the developing fruit exposed to the burning sun. The grapes will then become sunburnt.
Branches that are infected at flowering time will cause irregular fruit set, and grapes as they begin to form will become hard, grey and shrivel into reddish-brown mummies. This will be followed by a white furry growth over the branches if they are not sprayed with a fungicide.

CONTROL
Grape Downy Mildew will survive the winter on dead leaves laying on the ground, so it is important to pick up all the foliage as it falls and burn. The following seasons the first infection will occur when damp and warm temperatures begin .
Start a spraying program with COPPER OXYCHLORIDE or Mancozeb as soon as the new shoots are approximately 250 mm long. When the weather is warm and humid you should spray every two weeks, spray every four weeks if the weather is hot and dry. Then only spray if the fungus comes back again. Make sure that the spray covers all the surfaces of the leaves, branches and fruit during your program.

NOTE. READ ALL DIRECTIONS ON CONTAINER BEFORE USING.

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ROSE DOWNY MILDEW
Peronospora sparsa
This only infects some roses, some varieties are more susceptible than others.

IDENTIFICATION
The leaves will have purplish-red to dark-brown, round to angular spots on the leaves. When the humid weather arrives furry growth could appear on the underside of the leaf beneath the spots. If the Fungus is left untreated the flower stalks and stems may split.
They will become blotched and streaked with purple.
Brown areas will develop in the rose petals and the sepals will follow with purplish-brown spots. Young growth that is infected could die and leaves below the dead shoots will fall off. Infected flower buds will open deformed.

CONTROL
Rose Downy Mildew thrives during humid weather and will spread from plant to plant by the wind. Cut off all infected leaves and branches and dispose of by burning or placing in the rubbish bin.
Spray under and over all the foliage and stems with COPPER OXYCHLORIDE, Zineb or Fongarid until the disease has been eradicated.

NOTE. READ ALL DIRECTIONS ON CONTAINER BEFORE USING.

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POWDERY MILDEW

This fungal disease usually occurs on a wide variety of plants such as Apples, Grapes and Cucurbits during the Summer and Autumn. There are many species of Powdery Mildew and they are generally a host specific to one plant species. Powdery Mildews are mainly found on leaves, but they can also occur on stems, flower parts and fruit. Do not put infected plants, branches, leaves, flowers or fruit in the compost.

IDENTIFICATION
Powdery Mildew first appears as small white spots on the leaves and stems. They gradually increase in size to cover large areas of the leaf. The spores of Powdery Mildew generally require high humidity in order to germinate.
Once the fungus is growing, it can survive in very dry conditions with just the nightly dews to provide adequate moisture to spread the disease. The fungus spreads a mass of fungal threads and spores across the surface of the leaves and stems. These small root-like structures are inserted into the outer cells of the plant from which they obtain nutrients necessary for growth. The older leaves that are affected do not change shape, but if severely affected they will wither and die. The spots will still remain on the leaves even after the powdery substance is removed.

CONTROL
Apply Bayleton Garden Fungicide, Mancozeb Garden Fungicide, Dusting Sulphur, Baycor Garden Fungicide on the plant foliage and stems. Always make sure you read and follow the directions on the packet before using any product.

NOTE. READ ALL DIRECTIONS ON CONTAINER BEFORE USING.

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MOULDS

Some types of mould can cause great stress to particular plants where other moulds do no harm. Keeping a close watch on the garden for fungus disease will allow you to control the problem before the disease takes over the whole area.


GREY MOULD

This is a fungus that can grow on both the living and the dead plant material of grape vines. Do not put infected plants, branches, leaves, flowers or fruit in the compost.

IDENTIFICATION
In cool humid weather it produces a grey, furry growth with masses of spores which can be spread by the wind. Wind, hail or insect damage can cause the fungi to attack, and the problem is more likely to occur in the cool season when the bunches are slow to ripen.
Infection may also occur at flowering time.

CONTROL
To control this fungus, arrange the trellis so that there is plenty of air circulation and sun penetration. Remove dead and shriveled bunches. Always pick the bunches carefully so the remaining ones on the vine are not squashed or bruised. Spray the vines if the weather is cool or damp with a mixture of COPPER OXYCHLORIDE, once again about three weeks before harvest, and again one week before.
NOTE.
READ ALL DIRECTIONS ON CONTAINER BEFORE USING.

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SOOTY MOULD

SOOTY MOULD IS THE BLACK FUNGUS-TYPE GROWTH.
You may find that tree limbs and leaves are covered by an unsightly, black, sooty growth called sooty mould. It may develop on any trees, shrubs, palms or even indoor plants . Sooty mould is caused by saprophytic fungi. It is not a disease and does not infect living plant tissue. Heavy coverage on the plant's growth by the fungus can reduce photosynthesis, but does not harm the plant in any other way.
Sooty mould is often found on plants infested with sap sucking insects such as aphids, white flies, or scales which produce a sugary secretion called honeydew. This honey dew has a lot of sugar in it and provides an ideal host place for sooty mould to grow. This honeydew drips down onto leaves and branches providing a food base on which the sooty mould fungi can grow.
Sooty mould may also grow on sap or resin associated with wounds.
The presence of sooty mould is often an indication of insect activity which has the potential for causing damage. Removal of the insect pests will help reduce the problem. For information on these pests see Sap Sucking Pests
Fruit quality can be reduced can be reduced because the appearance is spoiled.
Accurate identification of the insect is necessary to determine if chemical control is warranted. Light coverings of the mould will gradually disappear during dry weather when its nutrient source is eliminated. Sooty mould can be physically washed off small plants if desired.

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PEACH LEAF CURL

Taphrina deformans
Peach Curled LeafPeach leaf curl is a fungus disease when under the correct weather conditions, can produce severe early defoliation and crop loss on nearly all peach and nectarine cultivars. Many people tend to think that this disease will do little harm and will go away. For this reason, the destructive potential of leaf curl is frequently underestimated to the point where important control measures may be forgotten or delayed.

IDENTIFICATION
The most common and striking characteristic of leaf curl occurs on the foliage. Infected leaves are severely deformed and often display a variety of colours ranging from light green and yellow to shades of red and purple. The fungus causes the cells at leaf margins to generate promptly and randomly, which results in the leaves becoming twisted, wrinkled, and curled. Infected leaves will mature, naked asci containing ascospores of the pathogen are produced on the surface giving them a dusty appearance, subsequently the leaves turn brown, shrivel, and drop from the tree.
The infected fruits will drop early and can go unnoticed while the rest may linger to become crooked at the stem end like a small yellow squash. Others evolve reddish to purple, wart-like deformities on the fruit skin. The pathogen occurs generally wherever peaches are grown, and overwinters as blastospores in protected crevices in the bark and around the buds. The early infections are the most damaging and strike during early spring from bud swell, when the bud scales loosen and until the first young leaves fully appear from the bud.

CONTROL
A preventative fungicide program is used and it should start just before bud burst. Before the flower buds open.
If the weather is unstable or rainy this could cause another outbreak on the fresh new leaves. The leaves may require additional protective sprays after the fruit has reached the size of marbles. Do not spray to the extent that the chemical is pouring off the foliage onto the ground below as this could kill the earth worms.
Spray with COPPER OXYCHLORIDE as directed on container.
An application of a quick acting fertilizer will encourage new leaf production.

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TOADSTOOLS, ALGAE & SLIME

Most forms of these fungi thrive in moist, damp conditions, and the main body of the fungi is usually underground, the toadstools or mushrooms are just their fruit or spore producing "flowers". A fungus spore is very small, so it can be blown into your garden area. Sometimes bark mulch can contain fungi which were growing on the tree branches or trunk and most probably still lodged in a piece of bark or wood that has been bought into the area (pine or gum bark mulch nearby).
CONTROL
Bluestone (copper sulphate) is used as a mould/fungi killer, applied at a slightly higher rate than recommended for element correction in the soil.
For control of algae/green slime on paths, use bluestone at a rate of 5 grams to 9 litres of water, dissolved in a non-metallic container and apply over the area.
In ponds, use 4 grams per 1000 litres of water. Dissolve a small amount in the pond, then add the rest of the solution.
SAFETY DIRECTIONS
BEWARE, BLUESTONE IS DANGEROUS TO FISH!
DO NOT apply to domestic water supplies

Avoid contact with eyes and skin and, Do not inhale dust.
The management process can be greatly assisted by the use of a moss killing chemical Munns Moss Killer & Turf Algicide (active ingredient 400 g/l dichlorophen). This is a very safe product for the home gardener to use if the label directions are followed.
A long term solution is to improve the drainage of the area and try to eliminate the moist conditions that fungi love - but this may be a little more difficult. It is probably unlikely to cause any damage to the area however, so if you just want to retain them as curios, it should do no harm.

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